Water hardness is among the key factors affecting the health of your aquarium. Typically, this comprises the amount and number of salts in water, including bicarbonates, chlorides, sulfates, and carbonates. However, most fish kept in the aquarium don’t thrive in salty water conditions.
Soften hard water with peat moss, reverse osmosis, rainwater, water-softening pillows, and driftwood. You can determine if water is hard or not by using a test kit, asking the city water supply, and looking at how the water interacts with soap. Soft water protects the fish and aquarium equipment.
How To Test Water Hardness In An Aquarium
As earlier stated, water hardness is caused by mineral salts in water. Fortunately, there are multiple ways of identifying whether the aquarium water is hard or soft.
You can determine if water is hard or not by use of a test kit, asking the city water supply, and looking at how the water interacts with soap. If it forms hard scum when used with soap, it’s hard. A testing strip is a helpful way of measuring water hardness in your aquarium. You are only required to dip the strip into the aquarium water that will change its color depending on the water’s softness or hardness.
Typically, there are two measurements to determine water hardness: General Hardness and Carbonate Hardness as follows:
1. General Hardness (GH)
General hardness entails the amount of magnesium and calcium dissolved in the aquarium water. The GH level affects the health of tropical fishes. Therefore, it is essential to acquire the right GH level to maintain and enhance such fish’s health.
Test the general hardnes of water with a general water hardness test kit. Readings from 0-8 dGH indicate soft water while higher values from 9-12 dGH indicate that the water is hard.
2. Carbonate Hardness (KH) or Alkalinity
KH measures carbonate and bicarbonate ions in the aquarium water. This helps to determine the tendency of PH variation in your aquarium. High KH levels in your Hardness imply more PH stability. If the KH levels are too high in your aquarium, you should lower the KH.
A carbonate hardness test kit is used to test the alkalinity of the water. Like in the general hardness, readings from 0-8 dGH indicate soft water while higher values from 9-12 dGH indicate that the water is hard.
Scaling is the most common way of determining water hardness within the tank. The presence of white residues at the bottom of the tank shows that aquarium water is hard. This can make it hard to keep different fish breeds such as tiger barbs with discus as they have different water preferences.
The table below the available units of measuring water hardness using the two methods:
|Units of Measurement||Equivalent to 1 degree|
|General Hardness (GH)||Parts per million (ppm)|
Degree of hardness (dGH)
|1 dGH= 17.84 ppm|
1 dGH= 10mg of calcium oxide per liter of water
|Carbonate Hardness (KH)||Parts per million (ppm)|
Degrees of carbonate Hardness (dKH)
|1 dKH= 17.86 ppm|
1 dKH= 17.86 mg of calcium carbonate per liter of water
How To Soften Aquarium Water
There are five practical ways of softening aquarium water without exposing your pet fish at risk and they’re as follows:
1. Water Softening Pillows
Water softening pillows are chemical filtration elements designed to reduce the aquarium’s general hardness. These pillows contain ion exchanging resins that consume magnesium, calcium, and other soluble ions. This exchange operation releases sodium ions by removing other minerals.
Amazingly, these pillows are reusable – you are only required to recharge them by soaking them in brine (water and salt solution) for 2-4 hours.
Softening pillows and other freshwater softening elements effectively lower GH in smaller tanks, accomodating less than 30 gallons. However, they can be used to soften water in larger tanks but may require to be recharged after every 48 hours.
Rainwater is the most effortless and inexpensive way of softening aquarium water. Obviously, you can test harvested rainwater to identify its KH and GH levels, although it’s naturally soft.
If you may find the rainwater too soft for your tank’s conditions, you can harden it by adding some tap water. However, you should take the following safety measures when collecting rainwater for your tank:
- Ensure you sterilize the container you will be using to collect rainwater.
- “Food grade” containers are suitable since they won’t release any chemicals.
- Ensure you use a rainwater harvesting method that won’t contaminate water.
If you may consider softening aquarium water using rainwater, it is essential to consider your location. For instance, industrial areas with high pollution levels and poor air quality aren’t suitable for collecting rainwater for your aquarium.
Driftwood softens water by releasing acids that depollute carbonate compounds. This element is associated with the downside of changing the color of the water to tea-colored.
However, it is an effective softening agent since it acts by releasing tannic acid that boosts fish’ immune systems by guarding them against fungal diseases.
4. Reverse Osmosis (RO)
RO is a deionization process used in fishkeeping to cleanse water. This process involves various types of water through a semi-permeable membrane that seizes up to 99% impurities.
The membrane also stops prominent molecules such as magnesium and calcium, softening the water in the long run.
A RO system is an incredible investment if you have a large capacity tank. However, if water quality and hardness are a constant problem, reverse osmosis will provide a dependable water softening solution.
5. Peat Moss Filters
Peat moss moderates water hardness by tying down magnesium and calcium ions. This process, known as chelation, softens aquarium water by means of demineralization.
During this process, peat also discharges gallic acid and tannins. This interchange process lowers PH and KH levels since the acids neutralize bicarbonate and carbonate ions in the water. Tannins are safe for fish although they’ll change the color fo the water slightly.
Boil the peat moss for about 2-3 minutes before using it as a filter media. This eliminates all contaminants and parasites that may be present. Also, soak it in clean water after boiling to prevent the tank water from excessive yellowing.
Here are the steps to follow to soften aquarium water using peat moss in a clean container:
- Boil the peat moss to disinfect it.
- Pour the brown water and store the peat moss in a sterilized container containing tap water.
- Allow the peat moss to settle for at least 2-3 days to soften the water.
- Utilize the softened water when performing routine water changes in your aquarium.
- Test the PH, GH, and KH levels in your aquarium to prevent major variations in water quality.
- Repeat the procedure is necessary.
With these methods, you can easily and safely soften your aquarium water for healthier fish and other aquatic pets.
Why Do I Need To Soften Aquarium Water?
Softening hard water in an aquarium at a favorable level for fish species plays a vital role in your aquarium. Here are the top reasons why you need to soften aquarium water:
1. To Ensure Soft Water Fish Flourish, Rather Than Survive
Soft water fish such as Barbs, Gouramis, and Angelfish can survive living in hard water conditions. However, a fishkeeper who understands the difference between fish thriving and surviving can recognize the difference.
Under quality water and healthy degrees where there are no signs of diseases, softwater fish can still demonstrate symptoms of distress in hard water. Thus, softening aquarium water will eradicate this stress parameter, boost their immune system and deepen their coloration.
2. To Breed Soft Water Fish
Soft water fish can adapt and thrive in an aquarium where the water hardness is above their required range. This doesn’t function in breeding tanks when attempting to promote the reproduction of these fish.
Optimizing temperatures and softening acidic water are essential steps to breed soft water fish. Also, ensure you reconcile your breeding pair before introducing them to the fish tank with differing water conditions.
3. To Protect Fish Equipment From Regular Malfunctions
Domestic water softeners are good to protect your home appliances from imminent regular misfunctions and limescale build-up. However, these softeners don’t alter functions in your aquarium, they instead substitute minerals carrying limescale with other minerals.
By using any of the discussed water softening methods in your aquarium, you will be also protecting other equipment in your aquarium such as powerheads, air pumps, canister filters or sumps.
4. To Inhibit Limescale Deposits and Hard Water Stains
Cleaning your aquarium that contains hard water stains can be a demanding task. Also, attempting to get rid of limescale build-ups can leave marks that can be easily identified under a crystal-clear view.
Softening aquarium water to gradually moderate water hardness to make it functional for your fish helps resolve such aesthetic issues naturally.
5. Allow Aquatic Plants to Thrive
Evene with enough sunlight and nutrients in the water, the hardnes may inhibit the growth of the plants in the aquarium. Since plants help keep the water cleaner, their stunted growth also affects the water quality negatively.
6. Regulate the pH of the Water
The same chamiclas that cause water to be hard affects its pH. For this reason, regulating the hardness also helps you keep the pH within healthy levels for the aquarium pets.
A water conditioner for the aquarium can also help attain the desired water quality.
Soft Water Pet Fish Species
Soft water fish are generally natural to water streams that travel within low mineral soils. Wild-captured fish emerging from Southeast Asian, South American, or West African rivers are suitable examples.
|Soft Water Fish||General Hardness (GH)|
|Ram Chilclids||3-6 dGH|
|Some Rasboras||4-12 dGH|
|Some Gouramis||5-10 dGH|
|Cory Catfish||3-10 dGH|
|Apistogramma Dwarf Cichlids||3-12 dGH|
Hard Water Pet Fish Species
If you may not opt to soften hard water in your aquarium, stocking it with hard water fish species will provide a suitable alternative. Although some fish thrive well in hard and soft water, the following fish species will thrive well in hard water:
|Hard Water Fish||General Hardness (GH)|
|Molly fish||15-30 dGH|
|Platy fish||10-28 dGH|
|Guppy fish||8-12 dGH|
|Swordtail fish||12-35 dGH|
|Mono fish||8-14 dGH|
|Paradise fish||5-30 dGH|
Get Rid of Hard Water In Your Aquarium
Softening hard water in your aquarium will provide incredible benefits to your fish’s health. Further, it will enhance their breeding ability and the functional components in your aquarium.
This process involves various simple practical ways that provide an effective aquarium with favorable conditions for your fish. Get into action to soften hard water in your aquarium now!
Duke University. What do you need to know about water chemistry and why?
North Dakota State University. Water Softening (Ion Exchange).
University of Florida. Aquarium Setup and Maintainence.